UMGC Library

APA 7th Edition Citation Examples: E-books

Format for e-books


Author last name, first initial. (Year). Book title. Publisher. DOI or URL. 


  • Author: List the last name, followed by the first initial (and second initial). See Authors for more information.
  • Year: List the publication year between parentheses, followed by a period.
  • Book title: In italics. Capitalize the first word of the title, subtitle, and proper nouns, followed by a period.
  • Publisher: List the name of the publisher when available. If the publisher is also the author, do not list the publisher's name a second time in the reference.
  • DOI or URL: Use DOI when available. If no DOI and from the free web, use a URL. If no DOI and from a database, do not use a DOI or URL. 

The name of the format, platform or device (e.g., Kindle) is not included in the reference.

See specific examples below.

Library database with DOI

Chaffe-Stengel, P., & Stengel, D. (2012). Working with sample data: Exploration and inference. Business Expert Press.

What is a DOI?
Some library databases, such as Academic Search Ultimate and APA PsycInfo, list a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for individual e-books. A DOI is a unique identifying number for an e-book. In the database record for an e-book, you will see an element that looks like this, which you should include at the end of your APA reference, preceded by "":

Digital Object Identifier

This link will allow a reader to link to for more information about the e-book.

Library e-book database without DOI

Burgess, R. (2019). Rethinking global health: Frameworks of power. Routledge.

Book read on an e-book reader

Gladwell, M. (2008). Outliers: The story of success. Little, Brown and Company.

It is not necessary to note that it is an e-book if the content is the same as the print version.

Free Web

Seton, E. T. (1911). The Arctic prairies: A canoe-journey of 2,000 miles in search of the caribou. Charles Scribner's Sons.

Book chapter from a library database

Quina, K., & Kanarian, M. A. (1988). Continuing education. In P. Bronstein & K. Quina (Eds.), Teaching a psychology of people: Resources for gender and sociocultural awareness (pp. 200-208). American Psychological Association.

When using just a chapter from a book the same rules apply regarding DOI or no DOI as listed above, depending on where the book was retrieved.

More info

See Publication Manual, 10.2