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APA 7th Edition Citation Examples

Format for e-books


Author last name, first initial. (Year). Book title. Publisher. DOI or URL


  • Author: List the last name, followed by the first initial (and second initial). See Authors for more information.
  • Year: List the publication year between parentheses, followed by a period.
  • Book title: In italics. Capitalize the first word of the title, subtitle, and proper nouns, followed by a period.
  • Publisher: List the name of the publisher when available. If the publisher is also the author, do not list the publisher's name a second time in the reference.
  • DOI or URL: Use DOI when available. If no DOI and from the free web, use a URL. If no DOI and from a database, do not use a DOI or URL. 

The name of the format, platform or device (e.g., Kindle) is not included in the reference.

See specific examples below.

Library database with DOI

Chaffe-Stengel, P., & Stengel, D. (2012). Working with sample data: Exploration and inference. Business Expert Press.

What is a DOI?
Some library databases, such as Academic Search Ultimate and APA PsycInfo, list a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for individual ebooks. A DOI is a unique identifying number for an ebook. In the database record for an ebook, you will see an element that looks like this, which you should include at the end of your APA reference, preceded by "":

Digital Object Identifier

This link will allow a reader to link to for more information about the ebook.

Library e-book database without DOI

Burgess, R. (2019). Rethinking global health: Frameworks of power. Routledge.

Book read on an e-book reader

Gladwell, M. (2008). Outliers: The story of success. Little, Brown and Company.

It is not necessary to note that it is an ebook if the content is the same as the print version.

Free Web

Seton, E. T. (1911). The Arctic prairies: A canoe-journey of 2,000 miles in search of the caribou. Charles Scribner's Sons.

Book chapter from a library database

Quina, K., & Kanarian, M. A. (1988). Continuing education. In P. Bronstein & K. Quina (Eds.), Teaching a psychology of people: Resources for gender and sociocultural awareness (pp. 200-208). American Psychological Association.

When using just a chapter from a book the same rules apply regarding DOI or no DOI as listed above, depending on where the book was retrieved.

Note that this template should be used only for books that have different authors for each chapter. If the author(s) is/are the same for an entire book, create a reference list entry for the entire book, even if you only quoted from one chapter of the book. (Your in-text citation will direct your reader to the specific part of the book that you quoted.)

More info

See Publication Manual, 10.2 and 10.3.