Skip to Main Content

APA 7th Edition Citation Examples

Format for academic journal articles


Author last name, first initial. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, volume(issue), page numbers. DOI or URL  


  • Author: List the last name, followed by the first initial (and second initial). See Authors for more information.
  • Year: List the publication year between parentheses, followed by a period.
  • Article title: Capitalize the first word of the title, subtitle, and proper nouns, followed by a period.
  • Journal title: In italics. Capitalize all important words.
  • Volume and issue number:  Volume number in italics. Issue number in parentheses, no italics.
  • Page number(s): List page numbers followed by a period.
  • DOI or URL: Use DOI when available.
    • If no DOI and from the free web, use a URL.
    • If no DOI and from a database, do not use a DOI or URL.

See specific examples below.

Library database with DOI

Dumais, S. A., Rizzuto, T. E., Cleary, J., & Dowden, L. (2013). Stressors and supports for adult online learners: Comparing first- and continuing-generation college students. American Journal of Distance Education, 27(2), 100-110.

What is a DOI?
Some library databases, such as Academic Search Ultimate and APA PsycInfo, provide a digital object identifier (DOI) for individual articles. A DOI is a unique identifier for an online work. In the database record for an article, you will see an element that looks like this, which you should include at the end of your APA reference, preceded by "":

Digital Object Identifier

This link will allow a reader to link to for more information about the article.

This FAQ shows how to remove from your DOI link created using an EBSCO cite tool. 

Library database without DOI

Reitzes, D. C., & Mutran, E. J. (2004). The transition to retirement: Stages and factors that influence retirement adjustment. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 59(1), 63-84. 

If a journal article from a database does not have a DOI, do not include a DOI or a URL.

Free Web

Free Web with page numbers:

Wentzell, G. (2018). Engaging in scholarly teaching to transform practice: Encouragement for reluctant colleagues. InSight: A Journal of Scholarly Teaching, 13, ‚Äč9-13.

Free Web with article number:

Munn, Z., Peters, M. D. J., Stern, C., Tufanaru, C., McArthur, A., & Aromataris, E. (2018). Systematic review or scoping review? Guidance for authors when choosing between a systematic or a scoping review approach. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 18(1), Article 143.

In print

Hughes, J. C., Brestan, E. V., & Valle, L. A. (2004). Problem-solving interactions between mothers and children. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 26(1), 1-16.

More info

See Publication Manual, pp. 317-319.