UMGC Library

APA 6th Edition Citation Examples: Academic Journals

Library database with DOI

Dumais, S. A., Rizzuto, T. E., Cleary, J., & Dowden, L. (2013). Stressors and supports for adult online learners: Comparing first- and continuing-generation college students. American Journal of Distance Education, 27(2), 100-110.

What is a DOI?
Some library databases, such as APA PsycArticles and APA PsycInfo, list a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for individual articles. A DOI is a unique identifying number for an article. In the database record for an article, you will see an element that looks like this, which you should include at the end of your APA reference, preceded by "":

Digital Object Identifier

This link will allow a reader to link to for more information about the article.

Library database without DOI

Reitzes, D. C., & Mutran, E. J. (2004). The transition to retirement: Stages and factors that influence retirement adjustment. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 59(1), 63-84. Retrieved from

No DOI? Find the journal's homepage.
Do a Web search to find the address of the homepage of the journal that published the article and include it in your citation. Please be aware, however, that the full text of articles may not actually be available at the journal homepage.

Cannot find the journal's homepage?
In this case, do a Web search for the name of the database you are using (for example, "JSTOR" or "Business Source Complete") and use the address of its homepage.

Free Web

Giancola, P. R. (2004). Executive functioning and alcohol-related aggression. American Psychologist, 59(2), 5-7. Retrieved from

In print

Hughes, J. C., Brestan, E. V., & Valle, L. A. (2004). Problem-solving interactions between mothers and children. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 26(1), 1-16.

More info

See Publication Manual, pp. 198-199; Style Guide, p. 12.