UMGC Library

Chicago Citation Examples: Bibliography and Reference Lists

Bibliography and reference lists

If a bibliography or reference list is required, the format for the bibliography or reference list differs from notes in the following ways: authors' names are inverted, the citations are listed alphabetically by author's last name (by title if no author), elements of entries are separated by periods not commas, the first line of each entry is flush with the left margin, and subsequent lines are indented three or four spaces.

In the text:

Use superscript 1 for endnote and footnote numbers in the text.

He concluded that the book "will stimulate thought about important questions. Swallowed whole, its effects would be disastrous."1

In the note:

The note number is followed by a period and space.

1. John Maynard Smith, "The Origin of Altruism," Nature 393, no. 6686 (1998): 639-40.

In the bibliographic entry

Smith, John Maynard. "The Origin of Altruism." Nature 393, no. 6686 (1998): 639–40.