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Online Guide to Writing and Research
Comprehensive tutorial for research and writing
Tips on common grammar issues
How to format your paper in APA, MLA, or Chicago style
How to format and write annotated bibliographies in APA and MLA styles
Cite Right Video Tutorial
Intro to citation with APA, MLA and Chicago styles
Citation Management Tools
Handy tools for keeping track of your citations
Database Citation Features
A note of caution about database-generated citations
Q: What are citations?
A: Citations are a way of giving credit to the author of a work (article, book, web page, recording, video, etc.). Any information or quotes that you take from another’s work must be cited.
Q: I’m new to this – where do I start to get an overview of what citation is?
A: Start with the Cite Right Video Tutorial for an overview of why and how we use citations and an introduction to APA, MLA, and Chicago styles.
Q: What is the difference between using quotation marks and citation? Can I just use quotation marks to show that I referenced something?
A: Quotation marks indicate a direct quote of the exact words from a work. A citation gives the author credit for the quote or for any information found in a work that you have rephrased into your own words.
Q: There are a lot of different types of materials that are confusing to cite. Is there a simple guide I can follow?
A: See the citation examples for APA, MLA, Chicago, and IEEE. These examples will help you understand how to cite in your paper and how to format your references.
Q: Do I need to cite in discussion posts?
A: It is helpful to get into the practice of citing sources whenever you use them, even in discussion posts. When in doubt, confer with your instructor.
Q: I don't see an individual person's name listed as the author of a web page. How should I cite that page in APA?
A: If no individual person's name is listed as the author of a web page, then the author is the organization that publishes the website. Note this is only for web pages, and not other kinds of publications. Here is an example:
American Council on Education. (n.d.). Race and ethnicity in higher education. https://www.equityinhighered.org/
Q: If an article does not have a digital object identifier (DOI), how do I cite it in APA?
A: End the reference with the article’s page numbers. For example:
Mulvaney, M. (2020). Discussion groups and multi-formatted content delivery in an online module: Effect on students’ self-efficacy. College Student Journal, 54(1), 88-105.