BC Campus Open Textbooks operates BC Campus OpenEd, which is a repository of openly licensed e-textbooks, more than 50 of which were developed and/or extensively adapted by faculty at the University of British Columbia for use by the institution's students, faculty, and others. The textbooks cover arts, business, education, health, law, recreation/tourism, sciences, social sciences, trades, and upgrading programs. The textbooks are available under a CC-BY 4.0 or CC-BY-NC-SA 4.0 license.
eCampus Ontario operates an Open Textbook Library that offers educators a repository of resources that are licensed to be freely used, adapted, and distributed. The library contains a collection of open textbooks aligned with the top 40 highest-enrolled subject areas in the province of Ontario. Additionally, the organization offers all of the e-textbooks provided by BC Campus Open Textbooks. All of the textbooks are available under a CC license; many of have been adapted for a Canadian student audience from previously published open textbooks published by such organizations as OpenStax, University of Minnesota Libraries, and other sources.
IntechOpen is a London-based open access publisher of scientific e-books, which cover physical sciences, engineering, and technology; life sciences; health sciences; and social sciences and humanities. In total, the organization publishes and provides free access to more than 4,200 e-books. In almost all cases, full-text access to the e-books is not provided, but instead select chapters in each book are openly published and available under a CC license. IntechOpen is a good source to search for topics in the physical and applied sciences for graduate-level courses.
Lardbucket Books is an open textbook archive established and maintained by Andy Schmitz, a high school math teacher. There are more than 120 textbooks (some are multiple editions) available on the Lardbucket website, covering such fields as business, economics, management, communications, and marketing. All Lardbucket books are available under a CC-BY-NC-SA 3.0 license without attribution of the author.
Lumen Learning is an education technology company in Portland, Oregon, that provides low-cost open courseware based on OERs designed to improve student performance while increasing access and lowering the cost of a college education. Lumen's brand Candela offers OER-based e-textbooks for more than 50 courses and houses the e-textbooks previously published by Boundless Learning. The Boundless content is typically released under a CC-BY-SA 4.0 license, but it often contains graphics, such as YouTube videos, that are not openly licensed.
The OAPEN Library works with publishers "to build a quality-controlled collection of open access books" and to provide "services for publishers, libraries, and research funders in the areas of dissemination, quality assurance and digital preservation," according to its website. The subject areas include society and social sciences; humanities; economics, finance, business and management; mathematics and science; literature and literary studies; the arts; medicine; law; and languages. Not all of the e-books available in OAPEN's repository are CC licensed, and a number have ND licenses, which limits their use at some universities.
OpenStax is a nonprofit educational company located at Rice University that seeks to improve student access to education. It publishes free, open e-textbooks in a number of subject areas, including math, science, social sciences, humanities, business, and advanced placement for high school students. The organization's products are typically released under a CC-BY 3.0 or 4.0 license.
The Open Textbook Library is a repository of open e-textbooks that is run by the Center for Open Education at the University of Minnesota. The library includes more than 600 high-quality openly licensed textbooks in a variety of subject areas, including business, marketing, finance, communications, and other humanities-related areas. Most of the textbooks are published by UM Libraries without attribution, at the request of the original publisher, and are made available under a CC-BY-NC-SA 4.0 license.
Open Textbooks SUNY is an open access publishing program established by the State University of New York that provides tools and know-how to SUNY faculty to assist with the development of open textbooks and OER materials and serves as the repository for all SUNY-produced OERs. Currently there are more than 50 OER textbooks available through the site, covering mathematics, physics, medicine, chemistry, and the social sciences. Open SUNY has also begun offering open access to two of its courses that are based totally on OERs: Introductory Astronomy and Introductory Psychology. All Open SUNY textbooks are available under a CC license, most often a CC-BY-NC-SA 4.0 license.
Saylor.org is the website for both the Saylor Academy and The Saylor Foundation. The website includes both e-textbooks (typically published under The Saylor Foundation nameplate) and full course materials (under Saylor Academy) consisting of readings, lectures, book chapters, videos, US government reports, and other types of openly licensed content provided by third parties. E-books offered by both Saylor Academy and the Saylor Foundation are released under a CC-BY-NC-SA 3.0 license without attribution. Saylor Academy courses are released under a CC-BY 3.0 license. Both the e-books and online courses may contain copyrighted content from third-party sources.
Project Gutenberg is a free online archive containing more than 59,000 e-books. The archive has grown from 1,000 books in 1997 to more than 59,000 today. Most books available on Project Gutenberg are in the public domain in the United States. However, there are some copyrighted works as well, provided by permission of the authors. The website is a good source for primary texts in disciplines in the humanities, such as literature, history, philosophy, and political science.
Textbook Revolution is a student-run site "dedicated to increasing the use of free educational materials by teachers and professors," according to the organization's website. The site includes links and reviews of textbooks and select educational resources. Many of the resources included are not open but are copyrighted with all rights reserved. Others are available under a CC or GNU license, or are in the public domain. The website provides no statistics as far as the number of books/resources curated and available on the site.
FreeTechBooks is a website that curates and aggregates links to books, textbooks, lecture notes, and other materials that deal with computer science, engineering, and programming, which are freely available over the internet. Many of the books listed are available under a CC license; however, others are under copyright and are made available to users for personal use only.
Academic Journals is a publisher of more than 100 peer-reviewed open access journals covering art and humanities, engineering, medical science, social sciences, biological sciences, physical sciences, and agricultural sciences, according to the organization's website. Today, all articles published by the organization are available under a CC-BY 4.0 license.
DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals) was launched in 2003 at Lund University, Sweden. It began with 300 open access journals, according to its website, and now contains about "12,000 open access journals covering all areas of science, technology, medicine, social science, and humanities." All of the articles in DOAJ's database are available under a CC license, typically a CC-BY 3.0 or CC-BY 4.0 license.
Frontiers launched in 2007 and today includes 79 journals covering 662 academic disciplines, with nearly 140,000 articles published to date, all open access with a Creative Commons 4.0 International license. Subjects covered include science, health, engineering, humanities and social sciences, sustainability, and young minds.
Hindawi is one of the largest publishers of peer-reviewed, openly licensed journals. The company publishes more than 20,000 articles a year in its 250+ academic journals, covering science, technology, medicine, and social science. Hindawi publishes its journals under what is known as the Gold Open Access model: all of its articles are free to users and can be retained, reused, revised, remixed, and redistributed as long as proper attribution is provided. All Hindawi journals are published under either a CC-BY 4.0 or CC-BY 3.0 license.
MDPI is a Basel, Switzerland-based publisher of open access, openly licensed journals covering molecular science, sensors and biosensors, marine pharmacology, energy, environmental research, viruses, remote sensing technology, toxins, and nutrition. MDPI, which began in 1996, offers more than 200 peer-review open access journals, representing the works of more than 263,000 authors. All MDPI journal content is available under a CC-BY 4.0 license.
OMICS International is an organization that "amalgamates Open Access Publications and international science events for the benefit of the global scientific community," according to its website, which says the organization's aim is to provide a platform for open access to research information in science and technology. OMICS International publishes more than 700 open access scholarly journals that can be easily accessed online without paying any subscription charges. All of OMICS open access journals are available under a CC-BY 4.0 license.
PLOS Journals includes a suite of open access, openly licensed multidisciplinary journals covering biology, medicine, computational biology, genetics, tropical diseases, and pathogens. The collection also includes the journal PLOS ONE, the world's largest multidisciplinary peer-reviewed journal. All PLOS journals are available under a CC-BY 4.0 license
ScienceDirect is Elsevier's aggregated database of 2,500 journals and 39,000 book titles in the fields of physical sciences and engineering, life sciences, health sciences, and social sciences and humanities. Thousands of these journals, articles, and book chapters are open access, openly licensed publications. For ScienceDirect's open access, openly licensed content, many of the resources are published under a CC-BY-NC-ND license. Others are available under a CC-BY 4.0 license.
Scientific Research Publishing produces more than 200 open access, peer-reviewed journals covering a broad scope of academic disciplines, including biomedical and life sciences; chemistry and materials science; earth and environmental sciences; medicine and healthcare; social sciences and humanities; business and economics; computer science and communications; engineering; and physics and mathematics. All of the publisher's journals are available under either a CC-BY 4.0 or CC-BY-NC 4.0 license.
SpringerOpen, launched in 2010, today includes more than 200 peer-reviewed open journals across many areas of science. Articles in SpringerOpen’s journals are published under a CC BY 2.0 license and are accessed both on the Open Journal website and via the leading open access repositories. The journals cover 25 different subject areas, from Architecture/Design to Social Sciences.
PubMed is a research database operated by the US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, that contains more than "29 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books," according to its website. Some of the citations provide links to full-text articles, which take the user to an external website, usually the publisher's, where the full-text can be retrieved. Not all of these full-text articles are available under a CC license.
Johns Hopkins School of Public Health (JHSPH OCW) offers a collection of lectures and course materials that can be used, copied, distributed, and modified under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license. The courses are nondegree offerings and derive from JHSPC's academic departments: Health, Behavior and Society; Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Biostatistics; Environmental Health Sciences; Epidemiology; Health Policy and Management; International Health; Mental Health; Molecular Microbiology and Immunology; and Population, Family and Reproductive Health.
Khan Academy offers instructional videos, practice exercises, and personalized learning tools that enable students and other learners to advance at their own pace. Its subject areas include math, computer programming, science, history, economics, and art history. Khan Academy content is available under a CC-BY-NC-SA 3.0 license, though some of its YouTube videos carry the Standard YouTube license.
MIT OpenCourseware (MIT OCW) is an open courseware program offered by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology that includes the learning materials—lectures and lecture notes, presentations, transcripts, readings, videos, and more—from nearly all of MIT's courses. The material is offered free to all learners around the world. MIT OCW began using Creative Commons licenses for all of its content in 2004. All of its resources are released under a CC-BY-NC-SA 4.0 license.
Open Yale Courses (OYC) "provides lectures and other materials from selected Yale College courses to the public free of charge via the internet," according to its website. The courses include liberal arts, "including humanities, social sciences, and physical and biological sciences." Most of the OYC lectures are available under a CC-BY-NC-SA 3.0 license. However, in some cases copyrighted material from third-party providers is also included in the materials.
Open Michigan began in 2007 when a group of students from UM's School of Information began working with UM Medical School's Office of Enabling Technologies to launch an OER initiative that serves the university, the state of Michigan, and learners worldwide. UM's OER collection includes a range of course materials, videos, lectures, open publications, and student work, most of which is available under a CC-BY 4.0 license.
OPEN.ED at Penn State University was launched in 2007 by the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences to encourage departments and faculty to produce and provide free resources to teachers and learners around the world. The resources were created by faculty and made available under a CC-BY-NC-SA 4.0 license. The dozens of courses offered by OPEN.ED are all derived from the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences and include lecture notes, videos, images, course assignments, additional readings, and more.
The Open Learning Initiative is a program from Carnegie Mellon University that provides online course materials, teaching aids, assessment tools, and a delivery platform to educators, students, and independent learners. The program includes more than 50 academic courses in business, computer science and programming, life sciences, math, social sciences, technology and design. Each course offers openly licensed resources for teachers and students. Depending on who is accessing and using the content and platform, costs vary from an average of $25 per student (for educators) to free for independent learners.
The Sofia project is an open content program begun by the Foothill—De Anza Community College District in California. Modeled on MIT′s OpenCourseware Initiative, "Sofia encourages the free exchange of community college-level materials on the World Wide Web, according to Sofia's website. Teachers from around the world can contribute course content for publishing and distribution on Sofia's website and determine which CC license to assign to their materials. The project currently offers eight courses, from "Creative Typography" to "Web Page Authoring." All of the course materials are available under a CC-BY-NC 1.0 license.
Utah State University Libraries provides access to more than 90 undergraduate courses in different fields of study. The courses include lectures, lecture notes, course assignments, and related materials, all available under a CC-BY-NC-SA 2.5 license. The website also offers access to its Open Texts collection, which includes ten e-textbooks and exams, notes, problems, and syllabi for three courses: "Introductory Modern Physics," "Intermediate Modern Physics," and "Voices of America Activity Book." The e-textbooks are available under a CC-BY-NC-SA 4.0 license.
Operated by the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, the Open Course Library (OCL) is a repository of course materials, including syllabi, readings, course activities, and assessments. Unless otherwise indicated, all materials are shared under a CC-BY 3.0 license. OCL courses and materials have been designed using the industry-standard Quality Matters (QM) rubric, according to the organization's website. OCL currently offers 83 courses, ranging from business and accounting to Spanish.
The Open University offers hundreds of undergraduate and graduate courses in such fields as arts and humanities, business and management, design, engineering, law, and medical sciences. The OER materials included in the free OU courses are available under a CC-BY-NC-SA 4.0 license.
Smarthistory.org touts itself as "the most-visited art history website in the world." The site includes conversational videos and essays that cover art and cultural objects from the Paleolithic to present-day periods. To date, it includes 1,800 essays and videos from more than 300 contributors. Narrative content and videos from Smarthistory are available under a CC-BY-NC-SA 4.0 license.
UCI Open is an open education project of the University of California, Irvine that supports the needs of learners and educators at UCI, within California, throughout the United States, and throughout the entire world. Its courses cover subject areas from the arts to social sciences and continuing education. All of the courses are available under a CC-BY-SA 3.0 or 4.0 license.
UMass Boston OCW is a free and open educational resource "for faculty, students, and self-learners worldwide," according to its website, and course materials, available under a CC-BY-NC-SA 3.0 license, are provided by UMass Boston faculty members. The available courses are derived from 18 university departments, from biology and chemistry to public policy and special education. A few courses are offered in Spanish.
TU Delft OpenCourseWare provides free open educational resources as free online courses. The organization offers about 200 open courses to learners around the globe, covering such fields as energy, the environment, health, water, sustainability, and infrastructures and mobility. Most of TU Delft OCW's online lectures are available under a CC-BY-NC-SA 4.0 license.
The BASE search engine is useful for academic journal articles, preprints, digital collections, images/videos, and research data. The search engine enables access to more than 150 million documents from more than 7,000 sources, about 60 percent of which are full text, according to its website. Most of the sources searched by BASE are non-United States publications and many are published in languages other than English. The advanced search function includes checkboxes that allow researchers to screen searches by document type, by publication year, and by CC license type.
The Community College Consortium for Open Educational Resources (CCCOER) "promotes the awareness and adoption of open educational policies, practices, and resources," according to its website, which adds that "these practices will expand student access to education while supporting academic freedom and faculty choice of openly licensed curriculum materials." CCCOER's membership includes colleges in 27 US states and two Canadian provinces. CCCOER is part of the global Open Education Consortium. The CCCOER website includes a page for finding OERs, which organizes OER repositories into such categories as books, open textbooks, open courseware, open journals, subject-specific sources, and digital media.
CORE is a UK-based organization that aggregates open access research content from international journals and OER repositories and makes the results available to the public. While the organization provides a number of educational and outreach activities, its open access search engine provides full-text results for many of the sources included. However, not all of the full-text articles are available under a CC license; many are all rights reserved and provide only free access for personal research.
The Digital Public Library of America (DPLA) is a digital library that aggregates metadata and thumbnail images for print and graphical resources, including photographs, manuscripts, books, sounds, moving images, and more, which are derived from libraries, museums, and archives across the United States. DPLA links to a variety of different materials: many are in the public domain, while others are under rights restrictions but nonetheless publicly viewable.
HathiTrust is a global consortium of major research institutions and libraries that collectively seek to "ensure that the cultural contribution of societies around the world is preserved and accessible" for future generations, according to its website. The HathiTrust Digital Library, a digital preservation repository and access platform preserves and enables access to both public domain and copyrighted content from sources including Google, the Internet Archive, Microsoft, and in-house partner institutions. The digitized repository contains about 17 million volumes, more than 8 million book titles, and over 450,000 serial titles; 38 percent of the total collection is in the public domain.
Begun in 1996 as an effort to archive the internet itself, the nonprofit Internet Archive seeks to build an online library of websites and other cultural resources in digital form, with a focus on books. Today the archive contains 330 billion web pages; 20 million books and texts; 4.5 million audio recordings; 4 million videos; 3 million images; and 200,000 software programs, according to the organization's website. Much of the content at the Internet Archive is available under a Creative Commons license or is in the public domain. Along with Project Gutenberg, the Internet Archive is a major repository for full-text access to public domain books.
The Mason OER Metafinder (MOM) is an OER search engine operated by George Mason University. The OER Metafinder performs a search across 21 different sources of OERs, such as OER Commons, BC Campus, Open Textbook Library, and OpenStax. Users can search all of the repositories or select certain ones. A "Deeper Search" function allows a search of popular public domain repositories, such as American Memory (US Library of Congress), HathiTrust, Project Gutenberg, The New York Public Library Digital Collections, and The World Digital Library. While searches take longer to perform, the results returned "are absolutely up-to-the-minute for each search target," according to MOM's website. This is a good tool to use instead of searching the individual repositories included in the platform.
OATD is a search engine for finding open access graduate theses and dissertations published in the United States and internationally. Metadata for the theses and dissertations is provided by more than 1,100 colleges, universities, and research institutions, and OATD currently indexes nearly 5 million of these resources, according to its website. OATD defines open access broadly to cover theses and dissertations that are free to access and read online for personal use. Only a small percentage of the theses and dissertations included in the search engine are published under a CC license.
OpenAIRE is a European scientific organization whose primary mission is to promote "open science" in Europe and across the world by facilitating access to open publications and by allowing researchers and others to link their work to funding sources and to other related open resources. OpenAIRE does not operate its own repository of openly licensed content but provides a search engine that enables users to find scientific resources from international publishers. Not all of the scientific content available through OpenAIRE is openly licensed or open access.
OpenDOAR is a global directory of academic open access repositories. The website collects information only on repositories that adopt the Idea of open access to full-text resources that are critical for academic research. As such, it does not include sites that impose access control on its information. Also, sites that include only metadata, not full-text resources, are excluded. OpenDOAR maintains information on more than 4,000 publication, image, and data-set repositories, about two-thirds of which contain English-language content. Concerning subject areas of the repositories tracked, multidisciplinary is the largest group, followed by health and medicine, business and economics, history and archaeology, science general, technology general, and law and politics.
Open Science Directory is a search tool for open access journals and journals in special programs with about 13,000 scientific journals now available, and planned growth to 20,000 journals after all of the special programs' publications are included, according to its website. Users can search the directory by keyword, subject, and title. The directory organizes the open access journals into different subject areas, from agriculture to technology. The largest subject area is the field of social sciences, with more than 16,400 journals.
Serendipity is a search engine for OpenCourseWare resources available over the internet. The search function is clumsy, and the results are difficult to navigate. The search results list includes metadata about each item with links to the original web page where the content is published. MIT OCW appears to be one of the leading content providers included in the search engine.
Each listing provides a brief profile of the department or federal agency with a link to the unit's website. The index also includes listings for each state government with links to state government websites. Many of these departments and agencies provide publications, research, hearings, white papers, and videos. Unless otherwise noted, all of the federal government information is in the public domain.
The Library of Congress contains millions of books, recordings, photographs, newspapers, maps, and manuscripts in its collections. It is the main research arm of the US Congress and the home of the US Copyright Office. The Library of Congress is a great resource for primary documents on all aspects of American history, including books, reports, newspapers, photographs, images, videos, recordings, and maps and manuscripts.
The World Digital Library (WDL) is an initiative of the Library of Congress, developed in cooperation with libraries, museums, educational institutions, archives, and international organizations from around the world. The WDL provides internet access to primary materials from all countries and cultures. As noted on its website, the "WDL makes it possible to discover, study, and enjoy cultural treasures and significant historical documents on one site, in a variety of ways." WDL items can be searched by location, time frame, topic, item type, language, and contributing institution. The search interface can be used to search the resource metadata and descriptions as well as the full text of printed books on the site.
The Community Tool Box (CTB) is a service of the Center for Community Health and Development at the University of Kansas. It is a free, online resource for those working in the areas of community development and social change, offering thousands of pages and tools to support community action. The Community Tool Box provides more than 300 educational modules and other free tools focusing on such issues as "community assessment, planning, intervention, evaluation, advocacy, and other aspects of community practice," according to its website. The CTB Learn a Skill e-textbook and its 16 toolkits provide practical steps practitioners can take to get started with community work. All of CTB's content is available under a CC-BY-NC-SA 3.0 United States license.
OER Commons is a public digital library of OERs to help educators find open resources for classes and to develop curriculum and lesson plans. Content covers K-12 to higher-education sectors. Users can refine their searches by subject area, by education level, and by curriculum standards (for K-12 users). OER Commons offers a curated collection of more than 50,000 open educational resources, organized into 35 subject categories. These collections include e-textbooks, websites, full courses, lesson plans, readings, lectures and videos. While many of these collections are targeted at K-12 education, some include content appropriate for community, college, postgraduate, and professional levels.
Praxis is a free platform and resource for project, program, and portfolio management. The framework includes a "knowledgebase" consisting of methodology, competency, and capability resources, as well as an encyclopedia. All content produced by Praxis is available under a CC-BY-SA 4.0 license.
Initiated by the Library of Congress and Boston-based public broadcasting network WGBH in 2013, the American Archive of Public Broadcasting includes approximately 40,000 hours of digitized programs from 100 public broadcasting stations, dating from the 1940s to the current century. While many of the video productions are copyrighted by WGBH and only available for personal and educational purposes, some is open and in the public domain.
This website is a collection of hundreds of animal photos. Images are organized into various categories, such as birds, mammals, and rodents. All of the photographs are available under a CC-BY or CC-BY-SA license.
Creative Commons (CC) is not only the maker and gatekeeper for the Creative Commons license platform. It also operates a search tool that helps with the discovery of both openly licensed and public domain resources. At this time, the CC search only searches images—300 million in total—which are accessed through open APIs and its own dataset. The search engine aggregates search results across multiple repositories into a single list. CC plans to add other media types to the target datasets, including open texts and audio, with the final goal of enabling access to all CC-licensed and PD works in the World Wide Web.
The C-SPAN Video Library includes more than 260,000 hours of the network’s programming, covering such U.S. governmental bodies as Congress, The White House, and the Supreme Court, as well as coverage of such topics as the coronavirus, impeachment, presidential elections, and so on. All content is available to download and use for non-commercial purposes.
DeviantArt is "a platform for emerging and established artists to exhibit, promote, and share their works with an enthusiastic, art-centric community," according to its website. The DeviantArt database includes more than 373 million unique works of art. All images are copyrighted by the creator and can't be reused, redistributed, or modified without written permission of the rights owner. There appears to be no CC-licensed content available at the website.
DOE Science Cinema is a sophisticated search tool supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science and Technical Information and including thousands of video and audio resources provided by DOE National Laboratories and other research facilities, as well as the European Organization of Nuclear Research. Topics covered included astronomy, biological sciences, chemistry, computing, energy conservation, and 14 other subject areas. The collection contains both copyrighted/all rights reserved resources.
Encyclopedia of Life is a knowledge base that includes photographs, articles, data sets, and other relevant information on essentially all known species in the world. Content on the website is provided by Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History, Atlas of Living Australia, Harvard University, Marine Biological Laboratory, and New Library of Alexandria. Content provided on the site is available under either a CC-BY, CC-BY-NC, CC-BY-SA, or CC-BY-NC-SA license, or in the public domain.
Flickr is one of the largest photographic/image databases. Its Creative Commons web page allows users to search image collections or categories filtered by each type of CC license. Across all the CC and public domain license types, Flickr provides access to millions of openly licensed photographs and images. Flickr also maintains a web page called "The Commons," which includes thousands of photographs from dozens of participating institutions. While images in many of these collections are under copyright or are available for personal use only, others are either in the public domain or are released to the public under a CC license.
Google Advanced Image Search provides users the opportunity to search the entire Internet for images published online and indexed by Google's extensive search engine. With the Advanced Search function, users can filter their searches by criteria, but most importantly by license type, so researchers can locate only images with a CC license. Search results are typically not as targeted as those returned when using a subject-specific search engine or a photo/image repository, such as Flickr. Often, search results include images that seem to have no relation to the search terms.
A project of the Library of Congress National Audio-Visual Conservation Center, this repository includes nearly 400 collections of films, videos, and web pages, nearly all of which are in the public domain. Some of the subjects covered include nonfiction films, fiction films, African Americans, world war, social life and customs, and many more topics.
Maintained by NASA, this multimedia library includes thousands of videos, images, and audio recordings dealing with aeronautics and space exploration. Content is in the public domain, though some all rights reserved third-party content may be included in the resources that NASA secured permission to use.
The Noun Project is a collection of more than 1 million curated icons, created by artists and graphic designers around the world. The image database includes both fee-based and openly licensed icons, as well as some placed in the public domain by their creators. Many include CC licenses; designers are free to choose which license to apply to their work once they upload it to The Noun Project website.
The Open-i search engine is a metadata search interface maintained and operated by the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health that searches public image repositories for biomedical images. The collections include PubMed Central, MedPix, Images from the History of Medicine (NLM), Indiana U: Chest X-Rays, and USC Orthopedic Surgical Anatomy. Open-i provides access to over 3.7 million images, according to its website. Most of the images are either in the public domain or are available under a Creative Commons license. Some, however, are under copyright and can be used only by requesting permission from the rights holder.
The Open Video Project started in 1998 and is currently sponsored and maintained by the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill. The collection includes videos mostly derived from U.S. government sources, such as NASA and the U.S. Archive and Records Administration. Besides these public domain videos, the repository also includes several collections available under a CC BY NC ND 2.5 license.
Pexels is a collection of user-created photos and videos that are all available free for both personal and commercial use, under the company's own license. Content is organized into rather esoteric collections (with such names as "Flower Power," "Tropic Vibes," "Orange Kiss," and so on), or images can be searched using key words or terms.
Pixabay includes 1.6 million photographs, illustrations, vector images, and videos, all available under a CC0 Creative Commons public domain dedication. Users can browse images by category, such as animals, architecture/buildings, food/drink, and so on, or can execute a keyword or advanced search to locate specific types of images.
The Public Domain Project is operated by Pond5, an international company that produces and markets video and multimedia content to both for-profit and nonprofit organizations. The PD Project includes thousands of historical media resources that are now in the public domain and free to download and use, including footage, audio files, images, and 3D models.
Stanford University Lane Medical Library Bio-Image Search is an image metadata database compiled and operated by Stanford University Lane Medical Library. The database gathers metadata on biomedical images from a number of both open and closed sources, including Atlas of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, National Cancer Institute Visuals Online, PubMed Central, Stanford Bassett Anatomy Collection, Wikimedia Commons, and other public repositories. Most of the images are either in the public domain or are available under a CC license. Some, however, are all rights reserved and can only be used by securing permission from the rights holder.
Started by a group of filmmakers, Vimeo was launched in 2004 with the goal of making it easier to share videos with friends. Today, the platform includes more than 80 million videos. Vimeo's core business is serving as a hosting and distribution system for individual filmmakers and businesses, who pay a monthly fee that is based on the amount of storage and other premium features, such as live streaming. All creators who publish their videos on Vimeo retain copyright. While a small percentage make their work available under a CC license, most videos are all rights reserved and require written permission to use them beyond personal viewing.
Wikimedia Commons is a media repository with both public domain and freely-licensed media content (images, sound, and video clips) in the native language of many countries. Wikimedia Commons serves as a repository for the projects of the Wikimedia Foundation; however, anyone can access and use the media hosted at the website. Launched in 2004, Wikimedia Commons contains more than 54 million media files. The Wikimedia Commons database itself and the texts in it are licensed under the CC-BY-SA 3.0 license.
YouTube is the world's largest video-sharing platform. As of early 2019, there are more than 5 billion videos available. Also, nearly 2 billion users visit the YouTube website each month. With such a large repository of videos, there is virtually no subject that isn't covered by a YouTube video. Most of the content on the platform is published under YouTube's standard license. The remainder is available under a CC-BY 3.0 license.
Data.gov is a US government website launched in late May 2009 and managed by the US General Services Administration. The website aims to improve public access to high-value, machine-readable datasets generated by the federal government as well as by state, county, and city governments, nonprofit organizations, and public universities. As of June 2019, the total number of data-sets was more than 266,000. The site is a repository for federal, state, local, and tribal government materials, made available to the public as public domain information.
Operated by the University of Michigan Library, Deep Blue Data is an open research repository that houses research and other data produced by University of Michigan faculty and research staff, as well as content created by people and institutions in collaboration with the University of Michigan. Note that the contents of the Deep Blue repository are research materials used and/or produced by the authors as part of their larger studies; the larger studies themselves are not part of the repository, however. All of the content in Deep Blue Data is available under a CC-BY-NC 4.0 license or is in the public domain.
OpenICPSR is a research-based data-sharing service designed for universities, research centers, journals, and academic departments that offers a hosted, cost-effective, trusted research data repository that reflects the research impact of its member organizations. The contents of the OpenICRSR repository are research data and support materials produced by various authors as part of their larger studies. Importantly, while users can access the metadata about these research data and materials, they must register with OpenICPSR to get access to the documents themselves.
The AWS Registry is a collection of 88 datasets housed on a web page maintained by Amazon Web Services. Datasets available through the Registry of Open Data on AWS are not provided and maintained by AWS but are provided and maintained by third parties under a variety of licenses. The datasets included are generally scientific in focus, from Landsat 8, a collection of satellite imagery of all land on Earth produced by the Landsat 8 satellite, to SpaceNet on AWS, a corpus of commercial satellite imagery and labeled training data to foster innovation in the development of computer vision algorithms.