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APA 7th Edition Changes for Citations

Prepared by UMGC Library Services 
March 31, 2020

Chapter/section and page numbers below refer to the seventh edition of the APA Publication Manual. This document is intended only to highlight major differences between the sixth and seventh editions; it does not cover all citation-related topics covered in the seventh edition of the Publication Manual.

In-text citations

  • Three or more authors
    An in-text citation for a work with three or more authors should consist of the first author's last name followed by et al. (8.17, p. 266), including the first time the work is cited. Example, for authors Jones, Baker, and Owens:
    (Jones et al., 2019)
  • Citing specific parts of a source
    There are new options for identifying sections/elements of a digital resource within in-text citations, such as slide number, audio/video time stamp, section heading, etc. (8.13, p. 264; 8.28, pp. 273-274). Writers may choose which element within a digital object is the most effective equivalent to (or a superior replacement for) page numbers to direct readers to the relevant portion of the cited item.
    (Thompson, 2020, Slide 7)
    (Adebayo, 2012, 1:13:05)

Reference list formatting

  • Authors
    Up to 20 authors should be listed, with an ampersand before the final author's name (9.8, p. 286).
    Author, A., A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C.

    For 21 or more authors, list the first 19 authors' names, followed by an ellipsis but no ampersand, and then add the final author's name (9.8, p. 286).
    Author, A., A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., . . . Author, Z. Z.
  • Titles
    Web page / website titles are italicized, and only major words in the title should begin with a capital letter (9.19, p. 291).
  • "Retrieved from"
    No “Retrieved from” prefix is needed before URLs or DOI URLs unless a retrieval date is provided, and a retrieval date is needed only if a source's content is likely to change (9.16, p. 290).
    Retrieved May 15, 2020, from
  • DOIs as URLs
    DOIs should appear in URL format, starting with https://... (9.35, pp. 299-300).
  • DOIs supercede other URLs
    DOIs now supersede other URL types when both are available and must also be given for print sources when available (9.34, p. 299).
  • URL formatting
    It is acceptable for URLs to be either in plain text that is not underlined or for URLs to be live (i.e., clickable) links that are underlined and in another font color. It's recommended that links be live if a work is to be read online (9.35, p. 299).
  • Database articles with no DOI
    Reference list entries for database articles with no DOI should end after the publication information, and nothing more needs to be given regarding retrieval (9.34, p. 299; see also 10.1, example 3, p. 317).  Example, from the Gale Academic OneFile database: 
    Curry, D. D. (2002, September). A fish out of water: My entree into electronic learning. School Administrator, 59(8), 58-59.
  • Books
    The publisher's location is no longer needed for books (9.29, p. 295).
  • Dissertations and theses
    In dissertations/theses from ProQuest's Dissertations and Theses Global database, publication information is given directly after the document title, followed by the document type and the name of the granting institution in brackets.  The full name of the database is given by itself (i.e., not prefaced by "Retrieved from") in the final line.  (10.6, p. 334). 
    Sanchez, R. S. (2020). Cultural wealth and the racialized experiences of persisting Latinx business students in a predominantly white institution: A study on sense of belonging (Publication No. 27832590) [Doctoral dissertation, Portland State University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
  • Videos
    "Video" replaces "Video file" in reference list entries for streaming videos. The name of the streaming service (e.g. YouTube, Netflix) also needs to be included, and "Retrieved from" is not used in the final line containing the URL (10.12, example 90, p. 344).
    CHOICE Media Channel. (2020, February 14). Creating references using seventh edition APA style [Video]. YouTube.