UMGC Library

Health and Medicine: Citing Sources

A Library Research Guide

APA Citation Examples

Indent everything after the first line five spaces.

Course Module - Material Created or Adapted by UMGC:

Author. (Year). Title of document. Retrieval information.

UMGC. (n.d.). Week 1: Policymaking processes in the United States. Document posted in University of Maryland Global Campus HMGT 310 6381 online classroom, archived at

Course Reading - Material Authored by a Source Other than UMGC:

Author name. (Year). Document title.  Retrieval information. (2018). Leading health indicators. Retrieved from

When no author is named, begin with the title, followed by the publication year, etc. When no publication years is given, use (n.d.) for no date.

Discussion Posts:

If in your Discussion post you quote, paraphrase, or summarize your course module or course readings or other material you researched from the library or the Web or a print source, give an in-text citation AND a reference  list citation at the end of your Discussion post in the same manner as you would within a research paper.

If you mention or refer to another student's entry/response in a Discussion post then do not cite it but simply mention the other student's entry in your sentence. Example: I agree with Susan Day (Discussion Post October 30, 2018) where she lists specific state legislatures that supported the Affordable Care Act.


Author last name, author first initial. (Date). Article title. Website publisher if different than author. Webpage address.

Freitas, N. (2015, January 6). People around the world are voluntarily submitting to China’s Great Firewall. Why? Slate.

Journal Article from a Library Database:

If there is a DOI: 

Author last name, author first initial. (Year). Article title. Journal title, volume(issue), pages. DOI URL.

Trad, W., Eng-Siew, K., Daher, M., Bailey, A., & Hovey, E. J. (2015). Screening for psychological distress in adult primary brain tumor patients and caregivers: Considerations for cancer care coordination. Frontiers in Oncology, 28(4) 1-15.

If there is no DOI, end the reference citation with the page numbers:

Author last name, author first initial. (Year). Article title. Journal title, volume(issue), pages. 

Levine, H. (2014). Your muscles: A user's manual. Health, 28(6), 91-96. 

E-book from a Library Database:

If there is a DOI: 

Author last name, author first initial. (Year). E-book title. Publisher name. DOI URL

Chaffe-Stengel, P., & Stengel, D. (2012). Working with sample data: Exploration and inference. Business Expert Press.

If there is no DOI, then cite as a print book:

Author last name, author first initial. (Year). E-book title. Publisher name.

Haber, D. (2007). Health promotion and aging: Practical applications for health professionals. Springer.

Print Book:

Author last name, author first initial. (Year). Book title. Publisher name.

Daries. H. (2012). Nutrition for sport and exercise: A practical guide. Wiley-Blackwell.

For more examples of APA citations, see the library's APA Citation Examples guide.

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